江苏省中小学教学研究室
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牛津版高中英语模块三第二单元词汇在文中句子2012-4-10 19:30:31

牛津版高中英语模块三第二单元词汇在文中句子

P22

The English language is made up of the grammar and vocabulary these people brought to Britain.

Old English is very different from the English we speak nowadays.

Old English differs from the English we speak nowadays.

Before the middle of the 5th century, people in Britain all spoke a language called Celtic.

Before the middle of the 5th century, people in Britain all spoke a language that / which was called Celtic.

Then two Germanic groups from the European mainland --- the Angles and the Saxons ----- occupied Britain.

Then two Germanic groups occupied Britain.

Britain was occupied by two Germanic groups .

Old English consisted of a mixture of their languages.

Old English was made up of a mixture of their languages.

Both the English language and the English people are named after the Angles; the word Angle was spelt Engle in Old English.

Aside from place names such as London, very few Celtic words became part of Old English.

Everything was quiet, aside from the occasional sound of a car in the distance. 除了远处偶尔有汽车的声响外, 四周一片寂静。

Apart/Aside from John,there will be five of us for dinner. /There will be five of us for dinner, besides John.
除了约翰外,还有我们五个人要一起吃饭。(包含约翰)

in addition to 含义与besides一样

 

At the end of the 9th century, the Vikings, people from Northern European countries such as Denmark and Norway, began to move to Britain.

By the 10th century, Old English had become the official language of England.

When we speak English today, we sometimes feel puzzled about which words or phrases to use.

The most important contribution was from the Normans, a French-speaking people who defeated England and took control of the country in 1066.

The Normans defeated England and took control of the country in 1066.

The Normans defeated England and controlled the country in 1066.

England was defeated and controlled by the Normans.

 

P23

However, the Norman Conquest did not affect English as much as the Angles and the Saxons’ victory about 600 years earlier, which led to Old English replacing Celtic.

Even though the Normans spoke French for the entire 250 years they ruled England, French did not replace English as the first language.

After the Norman Conquest, many English people worked as servants who raised animals.

Therefore, the words we use for most animals raised for food, such as cow, sheep and pig, came from Old English.

However, the words for the meat of these animals, which was served to the Normans, came from Old French: beef, mutton, pork and bacon.

Only a few words kept their Germanic plural forms, such as man/men and child/children.

After the Norman Conquest, high-class people spoke French while common people spoke English.

His mother tongue was English, and he used English for all official events.

Modern English appeared during the Renaissance in the 16th century.

Because of this, Modern English includes many Latin and Greek words.

It is certain that this process will continue, and people will keep inventing new words and new ways of saying things.

 

P25

Another big distinction between American and British English is spelling.

Finally, the pronunciations and accents are different.

P29

King Henry VII was a poet who showed great concern for language.

At one time the department banned some ‘borrowed words’ from English, including ‘weekend’ and 'e-mail'.

French people supported this because they wanted to keep their language pure and unique.

Today, the spread of 'borrowed words' is mostly due to the easily accessed Internet and television programmes from across the world.

P31

They have no letters or characters

Why my do barks in certain ways always puzzles me.

Several racial groups happen to live in Singapore.

P35

You offer your hand and he takes it with a light, gentle handshake.

She is making fun of you and trying to embarrass you into trying harder.

His hand faces up and his first finger moves backwards and forwards.

P36

In conclusion, we need to know the customs of a country so that we do not make others emarrassed or annoyed.

Saying 'sorry' if we interrupt or disagree with someone also helps us to be polite.

P37

For example, when we disagree, it is much better to say 'I'm sorry, but I think you may be mistaken' rather than "You are wrong!"

We also ought to show due respect for people older than us.

P38

The Chinese language differs from Western languages in that, instead of an alphabet, it uses characters which stand for ideas, objects or deeds.

Chinese writing began thousands of years ago.

One winter day while he was hunting, he saw the tracks of animals in the snow and observed that the appearance of each one was different.

Then he had the idea that he could use different shapes to represent different objects.

The first Chinese characters were drawings of physical objects.

Some characters have been simplified and others have been made more difficult over time.

However, as a whole, the characters have developed from drawings into standard forms.

Sometimes to express ideas, some characters were made by combining two or more characters together.

It is easy to distinguish their meanings by looking at them, for example, the characters for ‘up’ and ‘down’, which are opposites of each other.

Though these kinds of characters indicate meanings, one of their shortcomings is that they do not show how they should be pronounced.

P39

Usually, when we talk about reading, we think of using our eyes to see letters written in ink on paper.

Braille lost his eyesight at the age of three as a result of an injury.

When he was ten, he went to a school for the blind in Paris.

In those days, books for blind people used paper pressed against metal wire to form letters.

The whole system was not convenient for use.

In 1821, a soldier visited the school and showed the students a system for passing messages at night during times of battle.

Each letter of the alphabet was represented by a different pattern which consisted of twelve dots.

The soldiers would drag their fingers over the raised dots to read the message.

While the students found the soldier’s idea interesting, the system was too difficult to be of practical use.

At the age of fifteen, he created a system with patterns of six raised dots representing each letter.

Braille, the system for reading used today by blind people around the world, was thus born.

They can also easily write in Braille with a special typewriter.

Today, it is the most common system used by blind people for reading and writing, and nearly every language, including Chinese, has its own version of Braille for its people to use.

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